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2 edition of Wetlands of the Gallatin Valley found in the catalog.

Wetlands of the Gallatin Valley

change and ecological functions

by Karen Rachel Newlon

  • 265 Want to read
  • 12 Currently reading

Published by Montana Natural Heritage Program in Helena, Mont .
Written in English


About the Edition

Digital wetland mapping provides important information on the type, location, and extent of wetlands within a given region. Comparing historic mapping with updated mapping provides a unique opportunity to examine potential changes in wetland density and distribution due to both natural and anthropogenic causes. In addition to documenting changes in wetland area, comparing spatial datasets allows us to track change or loss of wetland functions such as flood control, nutrient retention, and wildlife habitat. This report focuses on the Gallatin Valley and surrounding area, typical of many rapidly growing regions in the West with increasing land conversion, subdivision, and residential development. Our objectives were to quantify changes in wetland ex-tent and function in our study area and to estimate cumulative change in wetland functions. The project required us to produce new digital wetland maps at a 1:12,000 scale, using 2005 aerial imagery at 1-meter resolution. This was done as part of National Wetland Inventory (NWI) updating, following current federal standards. To analyze wetland change, we compared randomly selected wetlands from the original NWI, completed in 1984 and 1988, with the new NWI mapping created for this project. We randomly selected 25% of the one-square mile Public Land Survey System sections in each subwatershed in the study area using a spatially balanced random sampling approach. Within the sampled area, we compared each wetland polygon in the old map-ping to the corresponding wetland polygon in the new mapping, and we assigned a source of change to each mapped wetland. To assess the functions associated with each wetland, we analyzed the landscape position, landform, waterbody, and water flow paths for each wetland. We assigned hydrogeomorphic (HGM) modifiers to all wetland polygons in both the old and new wetland mapping. These HGM attributes were combined with the NWI classification attributes to yield a combination that could then be ranked on a performance scale of 1 (low), 2 (moderate), and 3 (high) for each of ten wetland functions (water storage, streamflow maintenance, groundwater recharge, nutrient cycling, sediment retention, shoreline stabilization, native plant community maintenance, terrestrial habitat, aquatic habitat, and conservation of wetland bio-diversity). We used this performance ranking as a weighting factor and multiplied this weighting factor by wetland area to calculate functional units for each wetland function. We also completed a wetland landscape profile for each sixth code hydrologic unit that provides a broad landscape characterization of wetlands across the project area. We digitized 56,822 acres (22,995 hectares) of wet-lands and 28,210 acres (11,416 hectares) of riparian habitat within the change detection analysis area. Palustrine emergent wetlands covered the greatest area with over 28,380 acres (11,485 hectares). The majority of wetland and riparian habitats (57,358 acres; 23,212 hectares) occur on private lands within the analysis area. Overall, we observed an increase of 4,221 mapped wetland acres (1,708 hectares) between 1980"s and 2005 within the study area. Wetlands associated with lotic features comprised the largest hydrogeomorphic type in the Gallatin project area, totaling 39,454 acres (15,967 hectares). Wetlands associated with deepwater and associated lentic features covered 824 acres (333 hectares), and terrene wetlands totaled 3,256 acres (1,318 hectares). Comparison of wetland functional performance capacities throughout the Gallatin project area showed an overall 73.5% gain in hydrologic functions that include water storage, streamflow maintenance, and groundwater recharge. However, we mapped over five times more acres of lotic wetlands using higher resolution 2005 imagery, which contributed to this apparent gain in hydrologic function. Biogeochemical functions incorporating nutrient cycling, sediment retention, and shoreline stabilization showed an overall increase of 24%. Functions associated with terrestrial and native plant communities showed a combined decline of 7.3%, whereas aquatic habitat and conservation of wetland biodiversity showed a combined increase of 9.7%. Our analysis shows an overall increase in wetland area between mapping completed in the 1980"s and new mapping from 2005 aerial imagery. Many wetlands mapped as palustrine scrub shrub in the 1980"s are now palustrine emergent wetlands. Examination of the aerial imagery revealed that much of this change is attributable to agricultural changes (e.g., livestock grazing, stream dewatering, and conversion to hay pasture). Additionally, some scrub shrub historically mapped as wetland was mapped as riparian scrub shrub in the new mapping. Although our estimates indicate that few actual wetland acres were lost between the 1980"s and 2005 mapping efforts across the entire project area, concentrated wetland losses occurred in a few areas. In particular, much of the wetland change in the areas immediately around Bozeman was attributable to urban and rural development. This area has seen rapid growth and much of the valley bottom locations along the East Gallatin River have been subdivided. The wetland landscape profiling also revealed that the areas around Bozeman contain wetlands with the potential for high performance of several wetland functions, including groundwater recharge, streamflow maintenance, water storage, sediment retention, and terrestrial habitat. Continued impacts to wetlands in these important areas will reduce the ability of wetlands to perform these functions, potentially resulting in ecological and economic losses in these areas. It is also important to note that differences between the scales of the imagery used in the historic and new mapping products make accurate quantification of wetland change problematic. The historic wetland mapping was digitized at a 1:58,000 scale and exhibits considerably more spatial error than the current mapping that was digitized at a 1:12,000 scale. Factors such as photo quality, scale, and environ-mental conditions at the time of photo acquisition can also affect mapping accuracy. Digital wetland maps are static and may not reflect the dynamic nature of wetlands subject to drastic annual and seasonal fluctuations in size and distribution. We also emphasize that the functional capacity ratings assigned to wetlands in this project are only potential capacities. Data on actual functional capacity would require extensive field work and assessment. This analysis should be considered a preliminary assessment of changes in the Gallatin Valley wet-lands and wetland functional capacity. Data from this analysis can provide very effective conservation tools to identify areas with the potential to per-form wetland functions most effectively, allowing natural resource managers and other stakeholders to focus or prioritize conservation and restoration efforts.

Edition Notes

Statementprepared for the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency ; prepared by Karen R. Newlon and Meghan D. Burns
ContributionsBurns, Meghan D., Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana. Dept. of Environmental Quality, United States. Environmental Protection Agency
The Physical Object
Pagination1 v. (various pagings) :
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL24631485M
OCLC/WorldCa697829117

Experience wetlands both on land and through moving image in the Gallatin Valley. Mountain Time Arts of Bozeman presents Wetlands, one of a 4-part series .   Accurate and easily reproducible land-cover maps enable monitoring of land-management decisions and ultimately a greater understanding of landscape ecology. Multi-season Landsat ETM imagery from combined with ancillary topographic and soils data were used to map wetland and riparian systems in the Gallatin Valley of Southwest Montana, by:

These aerial photographs were captured to support the Wetland and Riparian Assessment of the Gallatin Valley, to show the status of wetlands in the Gallatin Valley in Supplemental Information The Montana State Library provides this product/service for informational purposes only. The Library did not produce it for, nor is it suitable for. The Symphonic Body / Water was a performance made entirely of gestures. Fifty people from the Gallatin Valley shared their lives and work. They opened their offices, barns, backyards, and fields for observed meetings, shared meals, and swim practice as they talked about water, work, and everyday life.

Wetlands Easement Restores and Protects Land in the Bridger Canyon Near Bozeman. About 80 acres northeast of Bozeman, Mont., in the Bridger Canyon have been protected with a USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Wetlands Reserve is not the first easement that Greg Adams, his wife Christina Fastnow, and mother, Dee Mast, have on their properties. The Greater Gallatin Watershed Council is working with The Trust For Public Land, the City of Bozeman, and other partners to enhance habitat and water quality at Story Mill Park. In early summer of , the stream restoration project funded in part by the Montana .


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Wetlands of the Gallatin Valley by Karen Rachel Newlon Download PDF EPUB FB2

Wetlands of the Gallatin Valley: change and ecological functions / By. Newlon, Karen Rachel. Burns, Meghan D. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Montana. Dept. of Environmental Quality. United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Type. Book Material. Published material.

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This comprehensive volume represents the current state of knowledge in wetland science, management, and restoration/5(16). This report focuses on the Gallatin Valley and surrounding area, typical of many rapidly growing regions in the West with increasing land conversion, subdivision, and residential development.

Our objectives were to quantify changes in wetland ex-tent and function in our study area and to estimate cumulative change in wetland : Get this from a library.

Wetlands of the Gallatin Valley: change and ecological functions. [Karen Rachel Newlon; Meghan D Burns; Montana Natural Heritage Program.; Montana. Department of Environmental Quality.; United States. Environmental Protection Agency.] -- Digital wetland mapping provides important information on the type, location, and extent of wetlands within a given region.

The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community. Download book. Wetlands of the Gallatin Valley: change and ecological functions / Pages;Author: Karen Rachel.

Newlon, Meghan D. Burns, Montana. The single most important book on wetlands, newly expanded and updated Wetlands is the definitive guide to this fragile ecosystem, providing the most comprehensive coverage and in-depth information available in print.

Recently updated and expanded, this latest edition contains brand new information on Wetland Ecosystem Services and an updated discussion on Wetland, Carbon, and Climate Change. WETLANDS OF MONTANA “In a green place lanced through With amber and gold and blue - A place of water and weeds, and roses pinker than dawn And ranks of lush young reeds And grasses straightly withdrawn From graven ripples of sands.

The still blue heron Size: 1MB. Wetlands of the Gallatin Valley: change and ecological functions / By Karen Rachel. Newlon, Meghan D. Burns, Montana Natural Heritage Program., Montana. Dept. of. in Gallatin County, less than 38% of wetlands remain; A Guidebook for Montana Ponds A Landowners’ Guide to Montana Wetlands Montana’s Wetlands and You- A Natural Partnership Preventing Recreational Impacts to Wetlands Representing Property with Wetlands and Riparian Areas West Nile Virus- Wetlands & Waterways Wetland Laws, Permits and.

Assessment of Wetland and Riparian Resources in the Gallatin Valley and Bozeman Creek Watershed, Gallatin County, Montana BACKGROUND Properly functioning wetlands and riparian areas provide critical habitat for waterfowl, freshwater fish, wildlife, and migratory birds.

It is the relative abundance of this wildlife, water and other natural. Where Have all the Wetlands Gone. By: Chris Nixon, SAS Board Member and SAS Wetlands Preservation Project Committee Chair The Native Americans that utilized the abundant resources of the Gallatin Valley knew it as the 'Valley of Flowers'.

Terrene wetland acreage is most plentiful in the Lower East Gallatin (41%) and Smith Creek (27%) watersheds. In the study area as a whole, NWI mapping from the s shows less than 8% of the total wetland acreage as being directly altered.

However, when wetland numbers are considered, almost 17% of wetlands were altered in some way. The Gallatin Valley is currently in a state of net loss involving wetlands. The East Gallatin River is the single largest recharge source for North Bozeman, Belgrade, Manhattan, and the majority of agricultural wells in the valley.

The IAWP wetlands are degraded from the invasion of non-native vegetation and from disruption of the former wetland waterways by artificial ditching and drainage. In spite of the poor current condition of the wetlands, bird surveys by Sacajawea Audubon have documented resident and migratory bird species at the Site.

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Wetlands of the Gallatin Valley: change and ecological functions by Karen Rachel Newlon (Book) About the National Wetlands Inventory (Book). Accurate and easily reproducible land-cover maps enable monitoring of land-management decisions and ultimately a greater understanding of landscape ecology.

Multi-season Landsat ETM+ imagery from combined with ancillary topographic and soils data were used to map wetland and riparian systems in the Gallatin Valley of Southwest Montana, USA. The Lower Gallatin Watershed. Restoration Plan. Inthe Gallatin Watershed Council worked with residents of the Gallatin Valley to create the Lower Gallatin Watershed Restoration Plan.

This document identifies the community’s priorities for watershed health and identifies 33 potential projects to improve area streams and water quality. The Montana Natural Heritage Program provides information on Montana's species and habitats, emphasizing those of conservation concern.

Wetlands of the Gallatin Valley: change and ecological functions (revised ). Montana Natural Heritage Program. a pilot study in the Gallatin Valley, Montana.

Report to the Montana Department of. Wetland Preservation Project (WPP) The Wetland Preservation Project (WPP) was initiated to accomplish SAS’s mission to protect and restore increasingly rare wetland habitat in our region, and to provide educational opportunities and enjoyment for generations to come.

The IAWP is the first of our wetland protection projects.Accurate and easily reproducible landcover maps enable monitoring of land management decisions and ultimately a greater understanding of landscape ecology.

Multi-season Landsat ETM+ imagery from combined with ancillary topographic and soils data was used to map wetland and riparian systems in the Gallatin Valley of Southwest : Corey Ryan. Baker.The Chronicle’s recent coverage of impacts and consequences of growth in the Gallatin Valley has been excellent, but one topic hasn’t been covered: accelerating loss of wetlands and aquatic.